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Eski 07-01-08, 20:53   #1
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Varsayılan Albert Einstein Biyografisi


"Einstein" redirects here. For other uses, see Einstein (disambiguation).
Albert Einstein

Einstein in 1947
Born March 14, 1879(1879-03-14)
Ulm, Württemberg, Germany
Died April 18, 1955 (aged 76)
Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.
Residence Germany, Italy, Switzerland, United States
Citizenship German (1879–96, 1914–33)
Swiss (1901–55)
American (1940–55)
Ethnicity Jewish
Field Physics
Institutions Swiss Patent Office (Berne)
Univ. of Zurich
Charles Univ.
Prussian Acad. of Sciences
Kaiser Wilhelm Inst.
Univ. of Leiden
Inst. for Advanced Study
Alma mater ETH Zurich
Academic advisor Alfred Kleiner
Known for General relativity
Special relativity
Brownian motion
Photoelectric effect
Mass-energy equivalence
Einstein field equations
Unified Field Theory
Bose–Einstein statistics
EPR paradox
Notable prizes Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)
Copley Medal (1925)
Max Planck medal (1929)
Signature Albert Einstein's signature

Albert Einstein (German: IPA: [ˈalbɐt ˈaɪ̯nʃtaɪ̯n] (Audio file) (help·info); English: IPA: /ˈælbɝt ˈaɪnstaɪn/) (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist. He is best known for his theory of relativity and specifically mass-energy equivalence, E = mc2. Einstein received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect."[1]

Einstein's many contributions to physics include his special theory of relativity, which reconciled mechanics with electromagnetism, and his general theory of relativity, which extended the principle of relativity to non-uniform motion, creating a new theory of gravitation. His other contributions include relativistic cosmology, capillary action, critical opalescence, classical problems of statistical mechanics and their application to quantum theory, an explanation of the Brownian movement of molecules, atomic transition probabilities, the quantum theory of a monatomic gas, thermal properties of light with low radiation density (which laid the foundation for the photon theory), a theory of radiation including stimulated emission, the conception of a unified field theory, and the geometrization of physics.

Works by Albert Einstein include more than fifty scientific papers and also non-scientific books.[2][3] In 1999 Einstein was named Time magazine's "Person of the Century", and a poll of prominent physicists named him the greatest physicist of all time.[4] In popular culture the name "Einstein" has become synonymous with genius.

Death

On April 17, 1955, Albert Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an aortic aneurism.[84] He took a draft of a speech he was preparing for a television appearance commemorating the State of Israel's seventh anniversary with him to the hospital, but he did not live long enough to complete it.[85] He died in Princeton Hospital early the next morning at the age of 76. Einstein's remains were cremated and his ashes were scattered.[86][87]

Before the cremation, Princeton Hospital pathologist Thomas Stoltz Harvey removed Einstein's brain for preservation, in hope that the neuroscience of the future would be able to discover what made Einstein so intelligent.[88]
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