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Eski 27-08-07, 15:09   #6
Mr.SaW

Varsayılan C: İngilizce Dil Bilgisi


Past Conditionals

Past Real Conditional

FORM
[If / When ... SIMPLE PAST ..., ... SIMPLE PAST ...]
or
[... SIMPLE PAST... if / when ... SIMPLE PAST ...]

USE
The Past Real Conditional describes what you used to do in particular real life situations. It suggests that your habits have changed and you do not usually do these things today.

EXAMPLES:

If I went to a friend's house for dinner, I usually took a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.

When I had a day off from work, I often went to the beach. Now, I never get time off.

If the weather was nice, she often walked to work. Now, she usually drives.

Jerry always helped me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.

I usually read if there was nothing on TV.

What did you usually do when it rained?
I usually stayed at home.


IMPORTANT Used to
The form "Used to" is often used to emphasize that the past action was a habit. If you are not familiar with the form "Used to," you can read about it in the English Page's "Used to Page."

EXAMPLES:

If I went to a friends house for dinner, I used to take a bottle of wine or some flowers. I don't do that anymore.

When I had a day off from work, I used to go to the beach. Now, I never get time off.

If the weather was nice, she used to walk to work. Now, she usually drives.

Jerry used to help me with my homework when he had time. But he doesn't do that anymore.

What did you do when it rained?
I used to stay at home.


IMPORTANT If / When
Both "if" and "when" are used in the Past Real Conditional. Using "if" suggests that something happened less frequently. Using "when" suggests that something happened regularly.

EXAMPLES:

When I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.
(I regularly had days off from work.)

If I had a day off from work, I usually went to the beach.
(I rarely had days off from work.)


Past Unreal Conditional

FORM
[If ... PAST PERFECT ..., ... would have + PAST PARTICIPLE ... ]
or
[... would have + PAST PARTICIPLE ... if ... PAST PERFECT ...]

USE
The Past Unreal Conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the past. You can describe what you would have done differently or how something could have happened differently if circumstances had been different.

EXAMPLES:

If I had had a car, I would have driven to work. But I didn't have one, so I took the bus.

She would have traveled around the world if she had had more money. But she didn't have much money, so she never traveled.

I would have read more as a child if I hadn't had a TV. Unfortunately, I did have a TV, so I never read for entertainment.

Mary would have gotten the job and moved to Japan if she had studied Japanese in school instead of French.

If they had worked harder, they would have earned more money. Unfortunately, they were lazy and they didn't earn much.

What would you have done if you had won the lottery last week?
I would have traveled.

What city would you have chosen if you had decided to move to the United States?
I would have chosen Seattle.


EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs
There are some special Conditional forms for modal verbs in English:

would have + can = could have
would have + shall = should have
would have + may = might have

The words "can," "shall" and "may" must be used in these special forms; they cannot be used with "would have."

EXAMPLES:

If I had gone to Egypt, I could have learned Arabic. CORRECT

If she had had time, she might have gone to the party. CORRECT

The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include Conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would."

EXAMPLES:

If I had had more time, I would have could exercise after work. NOT CORRECT
If I had had more time, I could have exercised after work. CORRECT

If he had invited you, you would have might go. NOT CORRECT
If he had invited you, you might have gone . CORRECT


IMPORTANT Only use "If"
Only the word "if" is used with the Past Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.

EXAMPLES:

I would have bought that computer when it had been cheaper. NOT CORRECT
I would have bought that computer if it had been cheaper. CORRECT
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Eski 27-08-07, 15:09   #7
Mr.SaW

Varsayılan C: İngilizce Dil Bilgisi


Future Conditionals

Future Real Conditional

FORM
[If / When ...SIMPLE PRESENT..., ... SIMPLE FUTURE.]
or
[... SIMPLE FUTURE... if / when ... SIMPLE PRESENT...]
Notice that there is no future in the "If" or "When" clause.

USE
The Future Real Conditional describes what you think you will do in a specific situation in the future. It is different from other real conditional forms because, unlike the present or the past, you do not know what will happen in the future. Although this form is called a "real conditional," you are usually imagining or guessing about the future. It is called "real" because it is still possible that the action might occur in the future. Carefully study the following examples and compare them to the Future Unreal Conditional described below.

EXAMPLES:

If I go to my friend's house for dinner tonight, I will take a bottle of wine or some flowers.
(I am still not sure if I will go to his house or not.)

When I have a day off from work, I am going to go to the beach.
(I have to wait until I have a day off.)

If the weather is nice, she is going to walk to work.
(It depends on the weather.)

Jerry will help me with my homework when he has time.
(I have to wait until he has time.)

I am going to read if there is nothing on TV.
(It depends on the TV schedule.)

What are you going to do if it rains?
I am going to stay at home.

IMPORTANT If / When

Both "if" and "when" are used in the Future Real Conditional, but the use is different from other real conditionals. In the Future Real Conditional, "if" suggests that you do not know if something will happen or not. "When" suggests that something will definitely happen at some point; we are simply waiting for it to occur. Notice also that the Simple Future is not used in "if' clauses or "when" clauses.

EXAMPLES:

When you call me, I will give you the address.
(You are going to call me later, and at that time, I will give you the address.)

If you call me, I will give you the address.
(If you want the address, you can call me.)


Future Unreal Conditional

FORM 1 (MOST COMMON FORM)
[If ... SIMPLE PAST ..., ... would + VERB ... ]
or
[... would + VERB ... if ... SIMPLE PAST ...]
Notice the form looks the same as Present Unreal Conditional.

USE

The Future Unreal Conditional is used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. It is not as common as the Future Real Conditional because most English speakers leave open the possibility that anything MIGHT happen in the future. It is only used when a speaker needs to emphasize that something is impossible.

EXAMPLES:

If I had a day off from work next week, I would go to the beach.
(I don't have a day off from work.)

I am busy next week. If I had time, I would come to your party.
(I can't come.)

Jerry would help me with my homework tomorrow if he didn't have to work.
(He does have to work tomorrow.)


FORM 2 (COMMON)
[If ... were VERB+ing ..., ... would be + VERB+ing ... ]
or
[... would be + VERB+ing ... if ... were VERB+ing ...]

USE
Form 2 of the Future Unreal Conditional is also used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. Native speakers use this form rather than Form 1 to emphasize that the Conditional form is a plan in the same way Present Continuous is used to indicate a plan in the future. To learn more about Present Continuous, visit Englishpage.com's Present Continuous Page. Also notice in the examples below that this form can be used in the "If" Clause, the Result, or both parts of the sentence.

EXAMPLES:

If I were going to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. IN IF CLAUSE AND RESULT
(I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.)

If I were not visiting my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. IF CLAUSE
(I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow.)

I am busy next week. If I had time, I would be coming to your party. RESULT
(I am not going to come to your party.)


FORM 3 (COMMON)
[If ... were going to VERB ..., ... would be + VERB+ing ... ]
or
[... would be + VERB+ing ... if ... were going to + VERB ...]

USE
Form 3 of the Future Unreal Conditional is also used to talk about imaginary situations in the future. Native speakers use this form rather than Form 1 to emphasize that the Conditional form is a plan or prediction in the same way "Going To" is used to indicate a plan or prediction. To learn more about Going To, visit Englishpage.com's Simple Future Page. In many sentences, Form 2 and Form 3 are interchangeable. Also notice in the examples below that this form can be used in the If Clause, the Result, or both parts of the sentence.

NOTICE Form 3 is only different from Form 2 in the "If" Clause.

EXAMPLES:

If I were going to go to Fiji next week, I would be taking my scuba diving gear with me. IN IF CLAUSE AND RESULT
(I am not going to go to Fiji and I am not going to take my scuba gear with me.)

If I were not going to visit my grandmother tomorrow, I would help you study. IF CLAUSE
(I am going to visit my grandmother tomorrow.)

I am busy next week. If I had time, I would be coming to your party. RESULT
(I am not going to come to your party.)


EXCEPTION Conditional with Modal Verbs
There are some special Conditional forms for modal verbs in English:

would + can = could
would + shall = should
would + may = might

The words "can," "shall" and "may" must be used in these special forms; they cannot be used with "would."

EXAMPLES:

If I went to Egypt next year, I would can learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. NOT CORRECT
If I went to Egypt next year, I could learn Arabic. Unfortunately, that's not possible. CORRECT

The words "could," should," "might" and "ought to" include conditional, so you cannot combine them with "would."

EXAMPLES:

If I didn't have to work tonight, I would could go to the fitness center. NOT CORRECT
If I didn't have to work tonight, I could go to the fitness center. CORRECT


IMPORTANT Only use "If"
Only the word "if" is used with the Past Unreal Conditional because you are discussing imaginary situations. "When" cannot be used.

EXAMPLES:

I would buy that computer tomorrow when it were cheaper. NOT CORRECT
I would buy that computer tomorrow if it were cheaper. CORRECT


Compare Future Real Conditional and Future Unreal Conditional

To help you understand the difference between the Future Real Conditional and the Future Unreal Conditional, compare the examples below:

EXAMPLES:

If you help me move tomorrow, I will buy you dinner. FUTURE REAL CONDITIONAL
(I don't know if you can help me.)

If you helped me move tomorrow, I would buy you dinner. FUTURE UNREAL CONDITIONAL
(You can't help me, or you don't want to help me.)
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Eski 27-08-07, 15:10   #8
Mr.SaW

Varsayılan C: İngilizce Dil Bilgisi


Continuous Conditionals

Continuous Unreal Conditionals

Those of you who have studied Englishpage.com's Verb Tense Tutorial should be familiar with Continuous verb tenses such as Present Continuous, Past Continuous, Future Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous, Past Perfect Continuous, and Future Perfect Continuous. The Verb Tense Tutorial gives you all the information you need to create Continuous Real Conditional sentences. But many English learners are not aware of the fact that we can use continuousness in imaginary situations as well. Study the examples below to learn how to create Continuous Unreal Conditional sentences that will make you sound like a native speaker.


Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous

USE
Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous is used to discuss imaginary situations which could be happening at this very moment.

NOTICE Sometimes the continuous form is in the "If" Clause.

EXAMPLES:

If the sun were shining, I would go to the beach.
(Unfortunately, it is raining so I can't go.)

If Sam were sitting here, we would be able to ask him the question ourselves.
(But Sam is not sitting here. He is somewhere else.)

We would be able to go sailing if the wind were blowing.
(But there is no wind, so we can't go sailing.)


NOTICE Sometimes the continuous form is in the Result.

EXAMPLES:

If I were in Hawaii, I would be lying on the beach.
(But I am not in Hawaii.)

If my grandfather were here, he would be talking about the war.
(But he is not here.)

I would be rafting down the Colorado River right now if my leg weren't broken.
(But my leg is broken, so I am not there.)


Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous

USE
Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous is used to discuss imaginary situations happening at a very specific time in the past or over a period of time in the past.

NOTICE As in the examples above, sometimes the continuous form is in the "If" Clause and sometimes it is in the Result. The sentences below have been labelled to help remind you where the continuous form is being used.

EXAMPLES:

If I had been talking to him when he said that, I would have punched him in the face. IF CLAUSE
(But I wasn't talking to him when he said that.)

If he had been standing near the house when the wall collapsed, it would have killed him. IF CLAUSE
(Luckily he moved away before the wall fell.)

If you had gone to his house last night, he would have been sitting on his couch in front of the TV. RESULT
(But you didn't go to his house, so you didn't see what he was doing.)

If she had missed her train, he would have been waiting for her at the station for hours. RESULT
(Luckily, she caught her train and he didn't have to wait.)


NOTICE Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous can be used like the Past Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize interruptions or parallel actions in the past.

EXAMPLES:

If James had been crossing the street when the car ran the red light, it would have hit him. IF CLAUSE

If Tom had been studying while Becky was making dinner, he would have finished his homework early and they could have gone to the movie. IF CLAUSE

If James hadn't stopped to tie his shoe, he would have been crossing the street when the car ran the red light. RESULT

If you had gone to their house last night, Bob would have been reading the news paper, Nancy would have been talking on the phone and the kids would have been watching TV. They always do the same things. RESULT


NOTICE Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous can be used like Present Perfect Continuous or Past Perfect Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize a duration of time.

EXAMPLES:

Scott said he had been studying Greek for more than five years. If he had been studying the language that long, I think he would have been able to interpret for us at the airport. IF CLAUSE

Sarah claimed she had been waiting in the rain for more than twenty minutes by the time we arrived, but she wasn't even wet. If she had been waiting that long, I think she would have been totally drenched by the time we arrived. IF CLAUSE

Terry's plane arrived ahead of schedule. If I hadn't decided to go to the airport early, she would have been waiting there for more than twenty minutes before I arrived. RESULT

At the travel agency yesterday, I waited for more than an hour for somebody to help me. Finally, I got up and left. If I hadn't decided to leave, I would have been sitting there forever. RESULT


Imagining About the Future + Continuous

USE
Future Unreal Conditional + Continuous can be used like the Future Continuous in imaginary situations to emphasize interruptions or parallel actions in the future.

NOTICE The future form looks the same as the present form. The future is indicated with words such as "tomorrow," "next week" or "in a couple of days."

EXAMPLES:

If I were waiting there next week when he gets off the plane, he would be totally surprised. IF CLAUSE
(But I will not be waiting there, so he won't be surprised.)

If he were staying in that hotel next week while the conference is being held, he might be able to meet some of the key speakers and tell them about our new product. IF CLAUSE
(I don't think he will be able to stay at the hotel, so he won't be able to meet anybody there.)

If I were able to go to the train station tonight to meet Sandra, I would be standing on the platform waiting for her when she arrives. RESULT
(I won't be able to go to the train station so I will not be standing there when she arrives.)

If you went over to Paul's house after work, he would probably be sitting there at his computer surfing the internet. RESULT
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Eski 27-08-07, 15:10   #9
Mr.SaW

Varsayılan C: İngilizce Dil Bilgisi


"Were to"

"Were to" in the Present

FORM
[ If... were to + VERB ...,...]

USE
"Were to" can be used in the present to emphasize that the Conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the "If" Clause.

EXAMPLES:

If she were to be rich, she would be horribly obnoxious.
(It is very unlikely that she would be rich.)

If I were to have no friends, who would I spend my time with.
(Having no friends is a horrible thought.)

If Nathan were to be my boss, this job would be intolerable.
(Nathan's being my boss is a horrible concept.)


"Were to" in the Future

FORM
[ If... were to + VERB...,...]

USE
"Were to" can be used in the future to emphasize that the Conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the "If" Clause

EXAMPLES:

If I were to lose my job, I would probably not find a new one quickly.
(Loosing my job would be terrible.)

If he were to fail his driving test, he would have to take it again.
(He is not likely to fail his driving test.)

If Sarah were to show up late to the birthday party, it would ruin the surprise.
(Sarah will surely come on time.)


"Were to" in the Past

FORM
[ If... were to have + PAST PARTICIPLE...,...]

USE
"Were to" can be used in the past to emphasize that the Conditional form is extremely unlikely or unthinkably horrible. Notice that this special form is only used in the "If" Clause.

EXAMPLES:

If the fire were to have destroyed the building, it would have been a tragic cultural loss.
(The thought of such a loss is too horrible to consider.)

If the dam were to have burst, the entire town would have been destroyed.
(Such destruction is too horrible to consider.)

If Sarah were to have failed the final test, she would have lost her scholarship.
(She is an excellent student, and it is very unlikely that she would have failed the test.)
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Eski 03-09-07, 09:35   #10
yalcinkerem

Varsayılan C: İngilizce Dil Bilgisi

guzel calısma.... ellerıne saglık.....
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